It is always a dream of most women to bear a child of their own.
But unfortunately, some women have problems conceiving or even carrying the pregnancy until the due date where they suffer a miscarriage along the way.
Some of the causes of this problem are due to fertility problem in women, and in some cases, it may be from the man. The problem in some situations it may be attributable by both of the partners having the problem or other natural cases that have not been defined. The good news is some problems are treatable.
Infertility is defined as trying to get pregnant (with frequent intercourse) for at least a year with no success.
Infertility results from female factors about one-third of the time and male factors about one-third of the time. The cause is either unknown or a combination of male and female factors in the remaining cases.
Female infertility causes can be difficult to diagnose. There are many available treatments, which will depend on the cause of infertility. Many infertile couples will go on to conceive a child without treatment.
After trying to get pregnant for two years, about 95 percent of couples successfully conceive.
The main symptom of infertility is the inability to get pregnant. A menstrual cycle that’s too long (35 days or more), too short (less than 21 days), irregular or absent can mean that you’re not ovulating. There may be no other outward signs or symptoms.
When to see a doctor
When to seek help sometimes depends on your age:
- Up to age 35, most doctors recommend trying to get pregnant for at least a year before testing or treatment.
- If you’re between 35 and 40, discuss your concerns with your doctor after six months of trying.
- If you’re older than 40, your doctor may want to begin testing or treatment right away.
Your doctor may also want to begin testing or treatment right away if you or your partner has known fertility problems, or if you have a history of irregular or painful periods, pelvic inflammatory disease, repeated miscarriages, prior cancer treatment, or endometriosis.
Each of these factors is essential to become pregnant:
- You need to ovulate. To get pregnant, your ovaries must produce and release an egg, a process known as ovulation. Your doctor can help evaluate your menstrual cycles and confirm ovulation.
- Your partner needs sperm. For most couples, this isn’t a problem unless your partner has a history of illness or surgery. Your doctor can run some simple tests to evaluate the health of your partner’s sperm.
- You need to have regular intercourse. You need to have regular sexual intercourse during your fertile time. Your doctor can help you better understand when you’re most fertile.
- You need to have open fallopian tubes and a normal uterus. The egg and sperm meet in the fallopian tubes, and the embryo needs a healthy uterus in which to grow.
For pregnancy to occur, every step of the human reproduction process has to happen correctly. The steps in this process are:
- One of the two ovaries releases a mature egg.
- The egg is picked up by the fallopian tube.
- Sperm swim up the cervix, through the uterus and into the fallopian tube to reach the egg for fertilization.
- The fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube to the uterus.
- The fertilized egg implants and grows in the uterus.
In women, a number of factors can disrupt this process at any step. Female infertility is caused by one or more of the factors below.
Causes of fertility problems in women
Let’s look at some common fertility problems in women.
- Ovulation problems
This is one of the problems that results in infertility in women. It occurs when the egg in the ovaries fails to mature, or it can occur when the ovaries fail to release mature eggs. The failure of the ovarian egg to develop is also known as a premature ovarian failure.
How can you detect ovarian problems?
- If you find that you are having heavy menstrual than usual, this may be the reason.
- Sometimes it may be complete absent of menstrual cycle.
- Other symptoms are related to breast becoming tender and experiencing bloating as well.
Ovulation disorders, meaning you ovulate infrequently or not at all, account for infertility in about 1 in 4 infertile couples. Problems with the regulation of reproductive hormones by the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland, or problems in the ovary, can cause ovulation disorders.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS causes a hormone imbalance, which affects ovulation. PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and obesity, abnormal hair growth on the face or body, and acne. It’s the most common cause of female infertility.
- Hypothalamic dysfunction. Two hormones produced by the pituitary gland are responsible for stimulating ovulation each month — (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Excess physical or emotional stress, a very high or very low body weight, or a recent substantial weight gain or loss can disrupt production of these hormones and affect ovulation. Irregular or absent periods are the most common signs.
- Premature ovarian failure. Also called primary ovarian insufficiency, this disorder is usually caused by an autoimmune response or by premature loss of eggs from your ovary (possibly from genetics or chemotherapy). The ovary no longer produces eggs, and it lowers estrogen production in women under the age of 40.
- Too much prolactin. The pituitary gland may cause excess production of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia), which reduces estrogen production and may cause infertility. Usually related to a pituitary gland problem, this can also be caused by medications you’re taking for another disease.
This condition occurs when the tissues which are found in the inside part of the uterus lining known as endometrial tissue grows on the outer part of your uterus instead.
The tissue usually grows in the abdominal-pelvic cavity which is not right. And often times requires surgical removal of the extra tissue.
- You may experience unusual pain during your menstrual cycle.
- Other symptoms may be related to pain when having sex.
Endometriosis can also affect the lining of the uterus, disrupting implantation of the fertilized egg. The condition also seems to affect fertility in less-direct ways, such as damage to the sperm or egg.
3. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
This problem occurs in the ovaries area whereby the small follicles formed in the ovaries fail to mature hence results to you experiencing hormonal imbalance and unusual ovulations.
- This may result in you having irregular menstrual.
- You may also have acne break.
- You may also experience excessive weight loss.
4. Damaged fallopian tube.
If your fallopian tube is not functioning well whereby if it is blocked or damaged may be a great cause of infertility in women. This problem prevents the sperm from swimming into your eggs hence no fertilization takes place at all in the uterus.
Damaged or blocked fallopian tubes keep sperm from getting to the egg or block the passage of the fertilized egg into the uterus. Causes of fallopian tube damage or blockage can include:
- Pelvic inflammatory disease, an infection of the uterus and fallopian tubes due to chlamydia, gonorrhea or other sexually transmitted infections
- Previous surgery in the abdomen or pelvis, including surgery for ectopic pregnancy, in which a fertilized egg implants and develops in a fallopian tube instead of the uterus
- Pelvic tuberculosis, a major cause of tubal infertility worldwide, although uncommon in the United States
5. Hormonal problems.
Another cause of fertility problems in women is whereby your hormones keep on changing hence resulting in releasing of ovule in the uterus.
This in return causes the lining of the uterus to thicken hence preventing the sperm from entering the uterus. Therefore, no fertilization will take place.
6. Early menopause.
This is another cause of infertility in women whereby they experience menopause before they hit the right age. This mostly occurs due to insufficient supply of ovaries. In other cases, it happens to women who are athletic and have had low weight throughout their lives hence is not able to produce enough eggs.
6. Damaged ovaries.
If your ovaries have been damaged, it may be difficult to conceive. This result to the failure of ovulation. Some of the causes of damage to ovaries include having multiple surgeries and repeated ovarian cysts which cause damaging the follicles hence they are unable to mature.
7. Congenital effects.
Although this type of problem is rare, it may occur to some women whereby they are born with irregularities in the uterine part hence making it impossible for fertilization to take place at all.
8. Environmental causes.
Several environmental factors that can lead to infertility. Some may be genetic such as damage to the DNA which makes it impossible to conceive. Other causes may be related to abuse of drugs that causes the body to become toxic.
9. Sexually transmitted diseases.
The sexually transmitted disease also affects the females’ reproductive system hence making them unable to reproduce. Some of the parts that are changed are the uterus which is unable to allow any fertilization to take place.
As a woman, there is an age that your body can conceive, but if you pass that age, you may have problems in getting pregnant. For a woman, you are advised that the latest age you can conceive is 35 years as you approach 40 years you may experience problems in getting pregnant as your body is not producing eggs for fertilization.
Sometimes, the cause of infertility is never found. A combination of several minor factors in both partners could cause unexplained fertility problems. Although it’s frustrating to get no specific answer, this problem may correct itself with time. But, you shouldn’t delay treatment for infertility.
Certain factors may put you at higher risk of infertility, including:
- Age. The quality and quantity of a woman’s eggs begin to decline with increasing age. In the mid-30s, the rate of follicle loss speeds, resulting in fewer and poorer quality eggs. This makes conception more difficult, and increases the risk of miscarriage.
- Smoking. Besides damaging your cervix and fallopian tubes, smoking increases your risk of miscarriage and ectopic pregnancy. It’s also thought to age your ovaries and deplete your eggs prematurely. Stop smoking before beginning fertility treatment.
- Weight. Being overweight or significantly underweight may affect normal ovulation. Getting to a healthy body mass index (BMI) may increase the frequency of ovulation and likelihood of pregnancy.
- Sexual history. Sexually transmitted infections such as chlamydia and gonorrhea can damage the fallopian tubes. Having unprotected intercourse with multiple partners increases your risk of a sexually transmitted infection that may cause fertility problems later.
- Alcohol. Stick to moderate alcohol consumption of no more than one alcoholic drink per day.
If you’re a woman thinking about getting pregnant soon or in the future, you may improve your chances of having normal fertility if you:
- Maintain a normal weight. Overweight and underweight women are at increased risk of ovulation disorders. If you need to lose weight, exercise moderately. Strenuous, intense exercise of more than five hours a week has been associated with decreased ovulation.
- Quit smoking. Tobacco has multiple negative effects on fertility, not to mention your general health and the health of a fetus. If you smoke and are considering pregnancy, quit now.
- Avoid alcohol. Heavy alcohol use may lead to decreased fertility. And any alcohol use can affect the health of a developing fetus. If you’re planning to become pregnant, avoid alcohol, and don’t drink alcohol while you’re pregnant.
- Reduce stress. Some studies have shown that couples experiencing psychological stress had poorer results with infertility treatment. If you can, find a way to reduce stress in your life before trying to become pregnant.
- Limit caffeine. Research suggests that limiting caffeine intake to less than 200 milligrams a day shouldn’t affect your ability to get pregnant. That’s about one to two cups of 6 to 8 ounces of coffee per day.
If you’ve been unable to conceive within a reasonable period of time, seek help from your doctor for evaluation and treatment of infertility.
Fertility tests may include:
- Ovulation testing. An at-home, over-the-counter ovulation prediction kit detects the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) that occurs before ovulation. A blood test for progesterone — a hormone produced after ovulation — can also document that you’re ovulating. Other hormone levels, such as prolactin, also may be checked.
- Hysterosalpingography. During hysterosalpingography (his-tur-o-sal-ping-GOG-ruh-fee), X-ray contrast is injected into your uterus and an X-ray is taken to detect abnormalities in the uterine cavity. The test also determines whether the fluid passes out of the uterus and spills out of your fallopian tubes. If abnormalities are found, you’ll likely need further evaluation. In a few women, the test itself can improve fertility, possibly by flushing out and opening the fallopian tubes.
- Ovarian reserve testing. This testing helps determine the quality and quantity of eggs available for ovulation. Women at risk of a depleted egg supply — including women older than 35 — may have this series of blood and imaging tests.
- Other hormone testing. Other hormone tests check levels of ovulatory hormones as well as thyroid and pituitary hormones that control reproductive processes.
- Imaging tests. A pelvic ultrasound looks for uterine or fallopian tube disease. Sometimes a hysterosonography (his-tur-o-suh-NOG-ruh-fee) is used to see details inside the uterus that can’t be seen on a regular ultrasound.
Depending on your situation, rarely your testing may include:
- Other imaging tests. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may request a hysteroscopy to look for uterine or fallopian tube disease.
- Laparoscopy. This minimally invasive surgery involves making a small incision beneath your navel and inserting a thin viewing device to examine your fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus. A laparoscopy may identify endometriosis, scarring, blockages or irregularities of the fallopian tubes, and problems with the ovaries and uterus.
- Genetic testing. Genetic testing helps determine whether there’s a genetic defect causing infertility.
Infertility treatment depends on the cause, your age, how long you’ve been infertile and personal preferences. Because infertility is a complex disorder, treatment involves significant financial, physical, psychological and time commitments.
Although some women need just one or two therapies to restore fertility, it’s possible that several different types of treatment may be needed.
Treatments can either attempt to restore fertility through medication or surgery, or help you get pregnant with sophisticated techniques.
Fertility restoration: Stimulating ovulation with fertility drugs
Fertility drugs regulate or stimulate ovulation. Fertility drugs are the main treatment for women who are infertile due to ovulation disorders.
Fertility drugs generally work like the natural hormones — follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) — to trigger ovulation. They’re also used in women who ovulate to try to stimulate a better egg or an extra egg or eggs. Fertility drugs may include:
- Clomiphene citrate. Clomiphene (Clomid) is taken by mouth and stimulates ovulation by causing the pituitary gland to release more FSH and LH, which stimulate the growth of an ovarian follicle containing an egg.
- Gonadotropins. Instead of stimulating the pituitary gland to release more hormones, these injected treatments stimulate the ovary directly to produce multiple eggs. Gonadotropin medications include human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG(Menopur) and FSH (Gonal-F, Follistim AQ, Bravelle). Another gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl), is used to mature the eggs and trigger their release at the time of ovulation. Concerns exist that there’s a higher risk of conceiving multiples and having a premature delivery with gonadotropin use.
- Metformin. Metformin (Glucophage, others) is used when insulin resistance is a known or suspected cause of infertility, usually in women with a diagnosis of PCOS. Metformin helps improve insulin resistance, which can improve the likelihood of ovulation.
- Letrozole. Letrozole (Femara) belongs to a class of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors and works in a similar fashion to clomiphene. Letrozole may induce ovulation. However, the effect this medication has on early pregnancy isn’t yet known, so it isn’t used for ovulation induction as frequently as others.
- Bromocriptine. Bromocriptine (Cycloset), a dopamine agonist, may be used when ovulation problems are caused by excess production of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia) by the pituitary gland.
Risks of fertility drugs
Using fertility drugs carries some risks, such as:
- Pregnancy with multiples. Oral medications carry a fairly low risk of multiples (less than 10 percent) and mostly a risk of twins. Your chances increase up to 30 percent with injectable medications. Injectable fertility medications also carry the major risk of triplets or more (higher order multiple pregnancy).
Generally, the more fetuses you’re carrying, the greater the risk of premature labor, low birth weight and later developmental problems. Sometimes adjusting medications can lower the risk of multiples, if too many follicles develop.
- Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Injecting fertility drugs to induce ovulation can cause OHSS, which causes swollen and painful ovaries. Signs and symptoms usually go away without treatment, and include mild abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.
If you become pregnant, however, your symptoms might last several weeks. Rarely, it’s possible to develop a more-severe form of OHSS that can also cause rapid weight gain, enlarged painful ovaries, fluid in the abdomen and shortness of breath.
- Long-term risks of ovarian tumors. Most studies of women using fertility drugs suggest that there are few if any long-term risks. However, a few studies suggest that women taking fertility drugs for 12 or more months without a successful pregnancy may be at increased risk of borderline ovarian tumors later in life.
Women who never have pregnancies have an increased risk of ovarian tumors, so it may be related to the underlying problem rather than the treatment.
Since success rates are typically higher in the first few treatment cycles, re-evaluating medication use every few months and concentrating on the treatments that have the most success appear to be appropriate.
Fertility restoration: Surgery
Several surgical procedures can correct problems or otherwise improve female fertility. However, surgical treatments for fertility are rare these days due to the success of other treatments. They include:
- Laparoscopic or hysteroscopic surgery. These surgeries can remove or correct abnormalities to help improve your chances of getting pregnant. Surgery might involve correcting an abnormal uterine shape, removing endometrial polyps and some types of fibroids that misshape the uterine cavity, or removing pelvic or uterine adhesions.
- Tubal surgeries. If your fallopian tubes are blocked or filled with fluid (hydrosalpinx), your doctor may recommend laparoscopic surgery to remove adhesions, dilate a tube or create a new tubal opening. This surgery is rare, as pregnancy rates are usually better with IVF. For hydrosalpinx, removal of your tubes (salpingectomy) or blocking the tubes close to the uterus can improve your chances of pregnancy with IVF.
The most commonly used methods of reproductive assistance include:
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI). During IUI, millions of healthy sperm are placed inside the uterus close to the time of ovulation.
- Assisted reproductive technology. This involves retrieving mature eggs from a woman, fertilizing them with a man’s sperm in a dish in a lab, then transferring the embryos into the uterus after fertilization. IVF is the most effective assisted reproductive technology. An IVF cycle takes several weeks and requires frequent blood tests and daily hormone injections.
Coping and support
Dealing with female infertility can be physically and emotionally exhausting. To cope with the ups and downs of infertility testing and treatment, consider these strategies:
- Be prepared. The uncertainty of infertility testing and treatments can be difficult and stressful. Ask your doctor to explain the steps for your therapy to help you and your partner prepare. Understanding the process may help reduce your anxiety.
- Seek support. Although infertility can be a deeply personal issue, reach out to your partner, close family members or friends, or a professional for support. Many online support groups allow you to maintain your anonymity while you discuss issues related to infertility.
- Exercise and eat a healthy diet. Keeping up a moderate exercise routine and eating healthy foods can improve your outlook and keep you focused on living your life despite fertility problems.
- Consider other options. Determine alternatives — adoption, donor sperm or egg, or even having no children — as early as possible in the infertility treatment process. This can reduce anxiety during treatments and disappointment if conception doesn’t occur.
Preparing for your appointment
For an infertility evaluation, you’ll likely see a reproductive endocrinologist — a doctor who specializes in treating disorders that prevent couples from conceiving.
Your doctor will likely want to evaluate both you and your partner to identify potential causes and treatments for infertility.
What you can do
To prepare for your appointment:
- Chart your menstrual cycles and associated symptoms for a few months. On a calendar or an electronic device, record when your period starts and stops and how your cervical mucus looks. Make note of days when you and your partner have intercourse.
- Make a list of any medications, vitamins, herbs or other supplements you take. Include the doses and how often you take them.
- Bring previous medical records. Your doctor will want to know what tests you’ve had and what treatments you’ve already tried.
- Bring a notebook or electronic device with you. You may receive a lot of information at your visit, and it can be difficult to remember everything.
- Think about what questions you’ll ask. List the most important questions first to be sure that they get answered.
Some basic questions to ask include:
- When and how often should we have intercourse if we hope to conceive?
- Are there any lifestyle changes we can make to improve the chances of getting pregnant?
- Do you recommend any testing? If so, what kind?
- Are medications available that might improve the ability to conceive?
- What side effects can the medications cause?
- Would you explain our treatment options in detail?
- What treatment do you recommend in our situation?
- What’s your success rate for assisting couples in achieving pregnancy?
- Do you have any brochures or other printed materials that we can have?
- What websites do you recommend visiting?
Don’t hesitate to ask your doctor to repeat information or to ask follow-up questions.
What to expect from your doctor
Some potential questions your doctor or other health care provider might ask include:
- How long have you been trying to become pregnant?
- How often do you have intercourse?
- Have you ever been pregnant? If so, what was the outcome of that pregnancy?
- Have you had any pelvic or abdominal surgeries?
- Have you been treated for any gynecological conditions?
- At what age did you first start having periods?
- On average, how many days pass between the beginning of one menstrual cycle and the beginning of your next menstrual cycle?
- Do you experience premenstrual symptoms, such as breast tenderness, abdominal bloating or cramping?